How to select a walker for your baby

In order to select the best baby walker for your baby there are a number of things that you need to do. These things have to do with the kind of walker that you need for the baby. Different walkers have different designs and are used for different situations. now that you have decided on the kind of walker that you are going to buy for your baby. the second thing to check is what safety features it includes. some walkers are poorly made and are very cheap but you should certainly stay away of them. never put your baby safety at a chance. you will want the walker to have a design that makes it unlikely to topple over because this can be risky.

Top 10 Best Baby Walker for Carpet in 2015 Reviews

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Rheem Direct Vent NG Tankless Water Heater

Rheem Direct Vent NG Tankless Water Heater RTG-84DVLN NEWRheem Direct Vent Natural Gas Tankless Water Heater for 2 – 3 Bathroom Homes. 6.7 GPM at a 45 degrees F temperature rise (up to 8.4 GPM at 35 degrees F).

Concentric Vent System with Integrated Condensate Collector connects to Metal Fab Inc. Concentric Venting without an adapter. Guardian OFW overheat film wrap.

Digital display on thermostat shows temperature setting and maintenance/error codes. Environmentally friendly Low NOx burner meets SCAQMD rule 1146 requirements. Built-in electric blower to force exhaust gas to the outside. Electronic ignition increases efficiency (no standing pilot light). Supplied with a 120V power cord.

26 GPM minimum flow rate. 40 GPM minimum activation flow rate. EZ-Link cable connects two like units to operate as one, doubling capacity – now available for high demand applications (cable not included). Manifold up to 6 units with an optional MIC-6 manifold control board. High altitude chip is required for installation above 3280 ft. (chip not included with unit). CPO recommends that appliances be installed by a licensed professional. Flow Rate At 35 Degree F Rise.

Gas Input BTU / Hr. 11,000 – 180,000. Flow Rate At 77 Degree F Rise. Flow Rate At 45 Degree F Rise.

Direct Vent Natural Gas Tankless Water Heater for 2-3 Bathroom Homes – RTG-84DVN. 12 Year Limited (Heat Exchanger) / 5 Year Limited (Parts).

  • Brand: Rheem
  • MPN: RTG-84DVLN

Change The Fuel Filter On A Riding Mower

Fuel filters typically get dirty very slowly. Many times you won’t even notice that it’s dirty. It’s ideal to change the fuel filter on a riding mower once a year as maintenance. If you do this, you should notice much more power. To keep yourself on a maintenance schedule, you may want to do this around the same time you do a yearly tune up.

Below is a video as well as written instructions on how to change the filter on a riding mower. The video was done by KC Power Equipment and provides a really good visual. The instructions are meant to be used in conjunction with the video and can be printed out if needed.

If, at any time, you feel uncomfortable changing the fuel filter, stop what you’re doing and call a mechanic or service department.

You’ll need a: shop towel, pliers, fuel line pliers, drain pain and a new fuel filter.

TIP: Never change a fuel filter inside a closed garage. Perhaps the worse part of changing a filter on a riding mower is the gas that leaks out.

1. Put the mower outside on a solid and level surface. Pavement is best.
2. Let the mower cool
3. Inspect the filter and the hoses that connect to it
4. If your hoses are warn and cracked, they should be replaced
5. Clamp the fuel line with a pair of fuel line pliers
6. Slide the 2 clamps near the filter down
7. Rotate the fuel line on the filter to loosen it
8. Pull the filter off
9. Do steps 6 and 7 on the other side of the filter
10. Drain the fuel out of the fuel filter
11. Look on your new filter. There should be an arrow which shows you which way the fuel will go into the filter. Always have the arrow pointing from your gas tank to your carburetor.
12. Attach the filter to both pieces of hose just like you removed it in steps 7 and 8.
13. Slide the clamp back on both sides
14. Take the fuel line clamp off

Shopping For A Mattress? Get In The Now!!

It still amazes me to see that in almost every walk of life, consumers are looking for the latest and greatest on the market. Except when shopping for a mattress, it still seems that people are drawn to the ‘same old same old’ one mattress fits all coils and springs. Ouch! But that’s not the big kicker; the big deal comes when you actually price these mattresses. To get a top quality coils and springs mattress you have to pay between $1500US -$3000USto get the comfort levels you want and then you are still really buying an expensive foundation with a memory foam pillow top, which is what is providing the comfort you feel. So, let’s say you spend $2000US, you now own a 100lb wooden box filled with coils and springs and what sold you was the $200US pillow top.

So why not just take the time to really see what options are out there? You will find so many other choices that take advantage of our newest technology, are not only half the price but provide a much healthier environment for you to sleep. All the new types of mattresses and beds are specifically designed sleep systems that provide the right support to minimize pressure to acceptable levels for different body types and sleeping postures, maintaining back and spine alignment. The coils and springs mattresses can only say this when they come with the memory foam pillow top. The coils and springs can’t really “fill in the gaps” to support the parts of your body that do not sink into the coils, such as your lower back.

Coils and springs mattresses’ biggest claim to fame is that the coils work independently so when you move, your partner doesn’t. Great, but how much does that matter if you’re not comfortable and you wake up tired and stiff? And in all honesty, I don’t know anyone who actually “bowls” in bed.

So what are the options out there? There are four different types of new technology sleep systems that really are a great bang for the buck and are very affordable and provide many health and convenient benefits compared to coils and springs.

1) Air Mattress Beds
– Air Mattress Beds cradle and cushion your body, providing more even weight distribution without the poking and prodding possible from a standard coil spring mattress. Easy to use handheld controls and a state of the art ultra-quiet air inflation system allow each sleeper to quickly adjust the firmness of their side of the air bed to the perfect comfort level, with just the touch of a button. Imagine, now couples can individually adjust each side of the air bed to the exact firmness and comfort level each partner prefers. (Tip: Look for horizontal baffling and contoured foam edges for quality construction.)

2) Adjustable Beds –
Now any sincere mattress salesman won’t push the watching TV or reading in bed, it’s not something that we should recommend. But with today’s lifestyles this has become a normal way of life for some people. So if that’s the case then you really should think about doing it right! With the touch of a button, adjustable beds move into hundreds of relaxing positions. All without creating pressure, stress or strain on your body. Touch a button again and experience a new concept in comfort, while your own personal massage system helps to relieve tired, sore muscles, and reduce everyday tension and fatigue. Encourage restful sleep through relaxation. (Tip: Concentrate on the frame construction, don’t fall for the “mattress included” it’s rarely of any quality.)

3) Latex Beds – Latex mattresses provide the most comfortable sleep surface in the world. Already immensely popular in Europe, Latex Mattresses are beginning to boom here in the United States. More and more Americans are learning about the tremendous advantages of Latex Mattresses everyday. The Talalay Process produces the highest quality, most resilient and consistent latex foam in the industry. Its consistent cell structure and exact density result in the most even firmness and feel possible. You can also buy Natural latex products. (Tip: Look for US made foam with layered construction, as this gives you quality foam and creates a variety of comfort levels to choose from.)

4) Memory Foam Beds –
Well I think the word is out on this one, I’m sure you’ve heard all the NASA explanations of why this is used in the Space Shuttle and seen the “handprint” pictures. But, in case you haven’t, Visco Elastic Memory Foam Mattresses utilize amazing, space age and NASA developed Visco Elastic Memory Foam. Visco Elastic Memory Foam is temperature sensitive. It actually reacts to the heat produced by your body, conforming to your body in a way no other material can. Where your body is making the most contact with the memory foam, the foam reacts and becomes softer. Where your body is making less contact, the foam stays cooler and remains more firm. The result is pressure being evenly distributed throughout the sleeper’s body, leading to fewer pressure points and a more restorative sleep. (Tip: Again, look out for problem European foam; US made Sensus with layered construction for the same quality and comfort level benefits.)

All of these new age sleep systems can be purchased for a fraction of what a coils and springs mattress goes for and depending on the mattress, you can adjust the foam layers to personalize your comfort level as you please. And don’t forget about the many major sleep benefits from all the sleep system technology. You just can’t miss, if you have to purchase a mattress or sleep system, you owe it to yourself to check these out, not only for your health but for your pocketbook too, ouch again!

Tune in to my next articles where I’ll break down what to look for in each of the new age sleep systems.

Why Sleep On Coils and Springs When You Can Sleep On Air?

Take time to consider the highest, quality, luxury and convenience of air mattress beds, adjustable beds, latex beds and memory foam beds, including mattress toppers and pillows.

Celestron NexStar 8 SE Telescope Reviews

With excellent optics and computerized “GoTo” tracking, this beast of a telescope outstrips 90% of telescopes at its on price range, with its competitors being bulky and hard to operate. It Telescope is light, portable and affordable for anyone serious about Astronomy. So it isn’t much of a surprise that each and every Celestron NexStar 8 SE Telescope review that we have seen so far has given it very glowing ratings indeed.

StarBright XLT high transmission coatings come standard

deluxe computer-controlled telescopes

light, portable and affordable

Nearly 40,000-object database with 200 user-definable objects                                                              and expanded information on over 200 objects

The best choice for the money. 

With this scope, seeing objects like Saturn, its rings and the Cassini Division becomes a cakewalk.Various Celestron NexStar 8 SE Telescope reviews have noted that while observing Jupiter, the pale orange color of the famous Great Red Spot is sharply visible. It produces beautiful and breathtaking images of the polar caps and spot dust storms on the planet Mars. The 20mm Plossl eyepiece enables you to see galaxies and star clusters and stare in wonder for hours on end about your own minuteness in this Universe. It also enabled people to view larger deep space highlights like the Andromeda Galaxy and the Orion Nebula.

  • Mechanical Stability & Usability

The incredibly exceptional and intuitive Go To button quickly locates and positions the star of your choice. The scope has a sturdy computerized alt-azimuth mount. The build quality,as noted by all Celestron NexStar 8 SE Telescope reviews, is robust – Everything’s secure, tough, and can withstand a lot. You can carry and wheel it around extremely rough terrain.

To use the “SkyAlign” technology, all you need to do is to enter the date and time, and point the telescope at three bright stars.

The scope features a quick-release fork arm mount, optical tube and accessory tray for no-tool setup.

Pros:

           Excellent optics

           Easy computerized GoTo tracking

           Light, portable and affordable

Cons:

           Plastic accessories

           Short battery life

           Motor noisy

           Too light for astro-photography

Other Celestron NexStar 8 SE Telescope reviews have recommended the following:

  • A powerpack
  • Eyepieces for even better and deeper visibility.

Tips for Maintaining your Blender

Buying the right blender for your cooking needs is important, but proper care and maintenance is even more crucial if you want to increase its lifespan. But first, you should understand the different parts of your blender.

The typical home blender is a counter-top kitchen appliance with various components. The largest part is the pitcher, which can be glass, plastic, or stainless steel in some cases. The pitcher comes with a fitting lid that covers it to prevent spillage of the different ingredients while blending.

Another important component is the blade assembly at the base of the pitcher. Some blender models have a removable blade assembly – which makes it easier to clean inside the pitcher – while other types of blenders do not have removable blades.

The other major component of a counter-top blender is the base that houses the motor. This is where the controls, speed settings, and the electrical cord are located.

Cleaning the Blender

Since a blender is an electrical appliance, you should never attempt to clean it without unplugging the electrical cord from the power mains. Also, never immerse the base in water. In most cases, you’ll only be cleaning the pitcher. The base may not need frequent cleaning and if you need to do so, simply wipe it clean and the electrical cord with a dump piece of cloth.

Steps to wash the pitcher:

  • Fill it half-full with warm water and add a few drops of dish-washing soap or detergent.
  • Run the blender at an appropriate speed or use the ‘stir’ setting (if your blender has it) for about 10 seconds.
  • Pour the contents in the sink and use warm water to rinse the pitcher. To maintain the pitcher’s finish, avoid using a scouring pad, especially if the pitcher is made from plastic.
  • If the base is made from stainless steel or any other metal, use glass cleaner to wipe it clean with a piece of cloth. For a plastic base, you can use an all-purpose cleaner or a mixture of water and baking soda.

The majority of blender pitchers are dishwasher safe, so you can clean them in your dishwasher’s bottom rack. However, this is fine for glass pitchers as they don’t crack. Plastic pitchers, on the other hand, will gradually turn cloudy due to scratching, so you wouldn’t want to use a dishwasher if your pitcher is made of plastic.

Care And Proper Use Of Your Blender
One of the main reasons why kitchen blenders fail is overloading the upper unit (pitcher). Heavy duty models can handle hard foods such as ice, hard vegetables, and meats. However, attempting these high resistance tasks with a basic model will damage its motor.

Stop the blender and remove some contents once you feel that the motor is starting to strain while running. You may also just add liquid to reduce resistance.

Keep your blender in an open and dry place, with the cord properly coiled. If it fits in a cupboard, you may also store it there.

Snowmobile helmets: Some essential facts

Snowmobile helmets can provide you optimum protection during snow riding. Snowmobile helmets are unique head coverings designed especially for the winter sports. They provide you protection from head injuries which might occur due to a bad fall during skiing or snow riding. Also the snowmobile helmets are insulated to lock the necessary heat and keep off the cold weather and wintry winds. Snowmobile helmets come in various models such as full face, full shell or short shell. In the present times you will come across some best snowmobile helmets because the modern designers always have in mind, your comfort and your protection.Snowmobile helmets: The features

Best snowmobile helmets come with the following features:

>Air vents: Any good snowmobile helmet would come with air vents. These vents can be opened or closed to cool you down or heat you up respectively. The opening or closing of the air vents is usually done with the help of a slider button occurring somewhere on the helmet’s shell. Also some snowmobile helmets come with inner liners to shut down the vent holes. These liners need to be removed when you want to open the vent holes..

>Ear pads: Most modern helmets come with ear pads to keep your ears warm. They are made of fabric and are often removable for washing or to allow you an option to wear the helmet without them. Modern ear pads have speakers fitted to them allowing the snow rider an added advantage, i.e. listening to music or receiving phone calls via Bluetooth.

>Goggle mount: The goggles usually occur around the helmet’s outside and a goggle mount located on the back of the helmet holds the goggles in place and prevent the goggles from coming off.

>Lining: Lining refers to the padded interiors of the helmet. It gives a cushion to your head and ensures your comfort. The liners can be removed for washing purpose and can be replaced either.

>Adjustment bands: The adjustment bands on your snowmobile helmets facilitate firm grip of the helmet to your head.

Snowmobile helmets: How to choose the best one?

>Best snowmobile helmets can be picked up through careful choice. Here are the things you need to consider while picking up the best snowmobile helmet:

>Know your budget before opting for a helmet. While fixing your budget, consider your skiing rate, i.e. whether you are a regular skier or an occasional one

>Next find out whether the helmet abides by the necessary safety standards and also whether it ensures you optimum comfort

>Finally you must know how good the helmet looks on you. Some people are very particular about the style of a helmet which would make them stand out among other skiers.

Snowmobile helmets: Where to buy them?

If you want to buy the best snowmobile helmet, you have the following options:

  • Buy from a local dealer.
  • Order the helmet via mail order

A mail order company selling snowmobile helmets usually offers branded helmets at lucrative discounts.

So these are some very essential facts you need to know about the best snowmobile helmets

Orchards Spa – advice on locating your hot tub

Setting up your spa – What are the best and safest locations to install your spa?

The location of your spa is based on your personal preference, the way your home is set up and your intended use.

Placing your hot tub inside your home

For some, they may prefer to place their hot tub inside their home.  If this is the case, remember that Spas weigh a lot more when filled with water and therefore needs to be placed on a solid surface that can handle the weight of both the water and the hot tub at its maximum capacity.  The ideal location to place a jacuzzi inside would be in a conservatory.  This will prevent the need to install a hot tub gazebo, but at the same time allow you to enjoy the view of outside whilst enjoying the benefits of a whirlpool bath in the comfort of your own home.

A deck or patio is also an ideal place to put your hot tub and can be installed in a variety of different ways.  Flush mounted and freestanding are the two most common options.

But remember a spa filled with water can cause moisture damage to your flooring.

Cautions:

  • Ensure that you meet the necessary safety codes and precautions
  • Prepare a solid foundation for your hot tub
  • Never place your spa or sauna near overhead power lines

Placing your hot tub outside

If you want your hot tub to be placed in an outside location, remember that the closer you place the hot tub to your home the shorter and easier the journey back and forth from your home to the hot tub.  Ensure that your hot tub is placed in a location that is easily accessible and convenient.  Consider how you plan to use your hot tub.  Will you use it in the winter? For socialising? Is it intended for the whole family, including the kids as well as the kids?

Do you want to place the hot tub in a gazebo for privacy?  Or leave it open so you can gaze up at the stars and relax whilst enjoying your hot tub?

An important factor to consider is the safety of using the hot tub outside.  If you plan to use the hot tub outside during cold and wet weather, ensure that you have a safe area to access the pool.  This may include placing a non-slippery surface down for safe access into and out of the hot tub and prevent slipping.   If your garden has a nice scenic view, this may be a factor you consider when choosing where to place your Jacuzzi.

If you place your sauna outside, you should look at Capital Spas range of accessories, including our towel rail to ensure you remain warm after exiting your spa.

No matter what location you chose to place your spa, ensure that you have a solid foundation and firm level surface that is strong enough to support it.  Hot tubs come in various different sizes and can be chosen to suit the size of the space available.  A power supply is needed and access to a spa.

Handheld Vacuum Cleaners

Handheld vacuum cleaners are always  popular, although technology has greatly improved them over time. They  can be used on many different places, just like the car, stairs as well as on upholstery. They are extremely affordable to purchase, with a few costing about $20.

How to Buy Handheld Vacuum Cleaners

If you are looking for handheld vacuum cleaners,just here we have some good advice for you.

In general, a bagged vacuum provides better filtration and it also releases less dust back into the air when you change a bag than a dirt cup.Filtration is really important only if you are planning to use your handheld when cleaning stairs or upholstery. But If you simply use it in your kitchen to clean up quick messes, then bagless handheld vacuums are in fact much more convenient.

  •  Which is the type of Battery Power,Cord or Cordless.

A lot of handheld vacuums can work with a battery. This feature is helpful for being able to take the vacuum where a power outlet is not readily available as well as not being restricted by a cord length when moving from place to place.The problem with battery powered vacuums is that you could run out of power before being able to complete a cleaning project after which have to wait anywhere from three to twenty-four hours for the battery to be recharged.If the battery option is desirable to you, choose a model with a long battery life and a short charge time.Lithium Ion batteries are considered optimal for long term use. Cords can be desirable if you only intend to use the vacuum where a power outlet is always at hand.

They provide an endless way to obtain suction power letting you use the machine as long as you want. If you are looking for a handheld to use in a RV, boat or other areas which require long amounts of continuous suction to clean, a corded machine would be the solution you’re looking for.

Determining where to store a handheld vacuum is very important to consider when making a purchase. Some good handhelds had charging stations which can be placed on a counter or mounted to a wall.

Because your specific cleaning needs are unique, it’s important for you to get a handheld which has the various tools necessary to handle your tasks.

If you most want to clean up your car, choose a vacuum that can handle contours and has a generous crevice tool.If you have pets and want to clean pet hair off of your upholstery, a good power brush specifically designed is a must.If you want to do lots of dusting, cleaning your baseboards or furnishings, consider getting a machine with soft or natural bristles on the dusting brush.

Pain Relief Benefits – The HealthmateForever®TENS & PMS massager

The HealthmateForever®TENS & PMS massager   is State of the Art, with all its features, high performance and comfort!

As the HealthmateForever® TENS & PMS massager is portable, easy to use, you can use it anywhere: indoors, outdoors and it will fit easily even in your pocket!

It’s a fantastic product and a unique gift to your family, friends or co-workers.

Hands-free massage for pain relief in a natural way, no drugs, no side effects, no needles, no cream or gel.
Proven safe and effective.  Good product sells itself. You have to try to believe it. Please check TESTIMONIALS.

HealthmateForever®TENS & PMS massager  is necessity of personal self-care. A single session massage from a  therapist costs  up to $95. With purchase of a portable hands-free TENS unit massager , it’s like paying one session, but you can enjoy unlimited soothing massage in the comfort of your home or office.

The advantage of this HealthmateForever TENS & PMS massager:

  • This HealthmateForever®TENS & PMS massager is the latest fashionable product. It is a light, iPod size, and multi-functional product designed for the market requirement.
  • The built in  lithium battery with various power charge methods (by USB of computer, and AC-DC converter)
  • All types of pain Including chronic and acute, treated with this device like a chiropractor or acupuncturist. It is a necessity of modern family.
  • With pure natural and humanized therapy without injection or medicine can relive pain and aches, it is an ideal non-medication product of 21st century.
  • Perfectly combined with modern science and technology and the TCM therapeutic methods, it is made to measure with its independent intellectual property.
  • You can use it at work or at home or during travel anytime anywhere as it pocket size, portable, hands free.

Some unique Benefits of the HealthmateForever®TENS & PMS massager

  • Quick response – Although the rate and degree of response varies for individuals. Many users report positive results after 10-20 minutes of use.
  • Always Healthy and Available -There are no drugs or chemicals involved in this effective form of pain relief. You have access to pain relief 24 hours a day, everyday. You can use the device as often as you like.
  • Portable – It’s pocket travel size enables you to receive treatment anywhere at your convenience.
  • Cost Effective– The device will save you time and money as well as bring you healthy lifestyle.
  • Simple to Use – User friendly device that is simple to operate.
  • Therapy at home – With this TENS & PMS massager you can take control of your health and well being and have access to therapy anytime at home.
  • Perfect health gift – Everyone, young and old, suffers from muscle tension of some sort. You can help yourself and others with the gift of health and well being.
  • Effective Relief – This TENS & PMS massager provides effective results. The advanced technology sends out multiple preset electrical therapeutic waves through the electrodes. These waves stimulate the combination of deep tissue pain relief techniques and various muscle movements, relieving muscle tension.

The HealthmateForever®TENS & PMS massager is ideal if you are in:

– Those who involve long periods of sitting down or standing on feet such as car repairers, construction workers, teachers, students or

–  working in one fixed position such as computer IT/Programming/Design, long distance travel

–  Athletic/Sports Training/Therapy in sports club, health and fitness center

To help those who experience muscle soreness after exercise such as aerobics, yoga, gymnastics, weight-lifting, cycling, running,  walking, tennis, soccer and more
To promote normal muscle and tissue recovery after muscle and tissue overuse or injury

  • Those who work in hospitality and service industry like nurses, doctors, physical therapists who need to relieve stress fatigue and get relaxation after a day of hard work.

Using the fundamental principles of acupuncture points, the HealthmateForever ®  can help to relieve tension and symptoms associated with many health conditions and common health problems. It can also assist in improving your immunity and nutrition transportation.

HEALTH CONDITIONS

ANEMIA
The condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or less than the normal quantity of hemoglobin in the blood. The oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is, therefore, decreased. Persons with anemia may feel tired and fatigue easily, appear pale, develop palpitations and become unusually short of breath. Children with chronic anemia are prone to infections and learning problems. Women are more likely than men to have anemia because of the loss of blood each month through menstruation. Iron deficiency anemia is common and in adults is most often due to chronic blood loss. This can be from menstruation or from small amounts of repeated bleeding (which can be very subtle) and in children is due mainly to not enough iron in the diet. Anemia is also often due to gastrointestinal bleeding caused by medications including such very common drugs as aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin).

DIABETES
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels, that result from defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes was first identified as a disease associated with “sweet urine,” and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine.
Over time, diabetes can lead to blindness, kidney failure, and nerve damage. These types of damage are the result of damage to small vessels, referred to as microvascular disease. Diabetes is also an important factor in accelerating the hardening and narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), leading to strokes, coronary heart disease, and other large blood vessel diseases. This is referred to as macrovascular disease.
Insufficient production of insulin (either absolutely or relative to the body’s needs), production of defective insulin (which is uncommon), or the inability of cells to use insulin properly and efficiently leads to hyperglycemia and diabetes. This latter condition affects mostly the cells of muscle and fat tissues, and results in a condition known as “insulin resistance.” This is the primary problem in type 2 diabetes. The absolute lack of insulin, usually secondary to a destructive process affecting the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas, is the main disorder in type 1 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that adds to the process of elevated blood sugars. Essentially, if someone is resistant to insulin, the body can, to some degree, increase production of insulin and overcome the level of resistance. After time, if production decreases and insulin cannot be released as vigorously, hyperglycemia develops.
Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy and is also caused by disease of small blood vessels. In essence, the blood flow to the nerves is limited, leaving the nerves without blood flow, and they get damaged or die as a result (a term known as ischemia). Symptoms of diabetic nerve damage include numbness, burning, and aching of the feet and lower extremities. When the nerve disease causes a complete loss of sensation in the feet, patients may not be aware of injuries to the feet, and fail to properly protect them. Shoes or other protection should be worn as much as possible. Seemingly minor skin injuries should be attended to promptly to avoid serious infections. Because of poor blood circulation, diabetic foot injuries may not heal. Sometimes, minor foot injuries can lead to serious infection, ulcers, and even gangrene, necessitating surgical amputation of toes, feet, and other infected parts.
Diabetic nerve damage can affect the nerves that are important for penile erection, causing erectile dysfunction (ED, impotence). Erectile dysfunction can also be caused by poor blood flow to the penis from diabetic blood vessel disease.
Diabetic neuropathy can also affect nerves to the stomach and intestines, causing nausea, weight loss, diarrhea, and other symptoms of gastroparesis (delayed emptying of food contents from the stomach into the intestines, due to ineffective contraction of the stomach muscles).

FIBROMYALGIA
A syndrome characterized by chronic pain, stiffness, and tenderness of muscles, tendons, and joints without detectable inflammation. Fibromyalgia does not cause body damage or deformity. However, undue fatigue plagues the large majority of patients with fibromyalgia and sleep disorders are common in fibromyalgia.
Fibromyalgia is considered an arthritis-related condition. However, it is not a form of arthritis (a disease of the joints) since it does not cause inflammation in the joints, muscles, or other tissues or damage them. But fibromyalgia can (like arthritis) cause significant pain and fatigue and it can similarly interfere with a person’s ability to carry on daily activities.
Fibromyalgia is not always easy to diagnose because many of the symptoms mimic those of other disorders, there are no visible signs of the disorder that a physician can see and there is no definitive laboratory test for fibromyalgia. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia is a clinical diagnosis. It is based on a history of chronic widespread pain that persists for more than 3 months in combination with tenderness in at least 11 of 18 specific tender point sites.
Treatment is most effective when it incorporates combinations of education, stress reduction, exercise, and medication. The physician, physical therapist, and patient may all play an active role in the management of fibromyalgia. Studies have shown that aerobic exercise, such as swimming and walking, improves muscle fitness and reduces muscle pain and tenderness. Heat and massage may also give short-term relief. Patients with fibromyalgia may benefit from a combination of exercise, medication, physical therapy, and relaxation.

MENOXENIA
Any abnormality relating to menstruation.

NEURASTHENIA
Neurasthenia is a psycho-pathological term first used to denote a condition with symptoms of fatigue, anxiety, headache, neuralgia and depressed mood. It was explained as being a result of exhaustion of the central nervous system’s energy reserves. Some physicians associated neurasthenia with the stresses of urbanization and the stress suffered as a result of the increasingly competitive business environment. Typically, it was associated with upper class people or professionals with sedentary employment.

PLANTAR FASCILITIS
Inflammation of the plantar fascia (fasciitis), the “bowstring-like” tissue in the sole of the foot stretching from the heel to the front of the foot. Plantar fasciitis (and heel spurs) may occur alone or be related to underlying diseases which cause arthritis (inflammation of the joints) such as Reiter’s disease, ankylosing spondylitis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. Plantar fasciitis is often associated with a bony spur projecting from the underside of the heel that makes walking painful. Spurs under the sole (plantar area) typically cause localized tenderness and pain that is made worse by stepping down on the heel. Treatment is designed to decrease the inflammation and avoid re-injury and irritation of the inflamed tissues.

SEMINAL EMISSION
Seminal emission is a pattern in which the semen of a man emits frequently without making sexual activities. This disease usually results from insecure seminal gate due to kidney deficiency, or blazing fire of the monarch (heart) and minister (kidneys), down rush of damp and heat, etc., which can disturb the seminal chamber. When the semen emits in sleep without dreaming, it is called non-dream emission. When the semen emits in dreaming, or even in being sleepless, it is called slip emission. However, in clinical practice of TCM, doctors tend to call all these two conditions seminal emission.

SCIATIC NEURALGIA
A condition characterized by pain radiating from the back into the buttock and posterior/lateral aspects of the leg. Sciatica may be a manifestation of SCIATIC NEUROPATHY; RADICULOPATHY (involving the L4, L5, S1 or S2 SPINAL NERVE ROOTS; often associated with INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT); or lesions of the CAUDA EQUINA.

ASTHENIA
Weakness. Lack of energy and strength. Loss of strength. The word asthenia is not much used in medicine today, although it is a prominent part of myasthenia, a loss of muscle strength, as in myasthenia gravis.

GASTROPTOSIS
In medicine, gastroptosis is the abnormal downward displacement of the stomach. It is not a life threatening condition. The condition frequently causes digestive symptoms and constipation, and is much more prominent in women than men.

URETHRITIS
Inflammation of the urethra. (The urethra is the transport tube leading from the bladder to discharge urine outside the body.) Urethritis can be due to several causes, including sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia, or irritation.

LETHARGY
Abnormal drowsiness, stupor. A state of indifference.

TREMORS
A tremor is a type of involuntary shaking movement. Involuntary means you shake without trying to do so. A tremor is often most noticeable in your hands, but may affect any body part (even your head or voice).
There are three main types of tremors:
Resting or static tremors occur when your hand or affected body part is at rest.
Kinetic and intention tremors occur when you are moving your hand or affected body part when you are doing something like pressing a button or touching the tip of your nose with your finger. The tremor will usually disappear while the affected body part is at rest.
Postural or action tremors occur when you are holding your hand or affected body part in a particular position for a period of time. This may happen when you are writing, holding a cup, or when you stand up straight.

CLONUS
Clonus is a series of involuntary muscular contractions due to sudden stretching of the muscle. Clonus is a sign of certain neurological conditions, and is particularly associated with upper motor neuron lesions such as in stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord damage and hepatic encephalopathy. Unlike the small, spontaneous twitching known as fasciculations (usually caused by lower motor neuron pathology), clonus causes large motions that are usually initiated by a reflex.
Clonus is most common in the ankles, where it is tested by rapidly flexing the foot upward (dorsiflexion). It can also be tested in the knees by rapidly pushing the patella towards the toes. Only sustained clonus (5 beats or more) is considered abnormal.

HYPERTENSION
Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure is elevated. It is also referred to as high blood pressure or shortened to HT, HTN or HPN. The word “hypertension”, by itself, normally refers to systemic, arterial hypertension.
Hypertension can be classified as either essential (primary) or secondary. Essential or primary hypertension means that no medical cause can be found to explain the raised blood pressure. It is common. About 90-95% of hypertension is essential hypertension. Secondary hypertension indicates that the high blood pressure is a result of (i.e., secondary to) another condition, such as kidney disease or tumors (adrenal adenoma or pheochromocytoma).
Persistent hypertension is one of the risk factors for strokes, heart attacks, heart failure and arterial aneurysm, and is a leading cause of chronic renal failure. Even moderate elevation of arterial blood pressure leads to shortened life expectancy. At severely high pressures, defined as mean arterial pressures 50% or more above average, a person can expect to live no more than a few years unless appropriately treated. Beginning at a systolic pressure (which is peak pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the end of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are contracting) of 115 mmHg and diastolic pressure (which is minimum pressure in the arteries, which occurs near the beginning of the cardiac cycle when the ventricles are filled with blood) of 75 mmHg (commonly written as 115/75 mmHg), cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk doubles for each increment of 20/10 mmHg.

ASTHMA
Asthma is a chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes (airways) that causes swelling and narrowing (constriction) of the airways. The result is difficulty breathing. The bronchial narrowing is usually either totally or at least partially reversible with treatments.
Bronchial tubes that are chronically inflamed may become overly sensitive to allergens (specific triggers) or irritants (nonspecific triggers). The airways may become “twitchy” and remain in a state of heightened sensitivity. This is called “bronchial hyperreactivity” (BHR). It is likely that there is a spectrum of bronchial hyperreactivity in all individuals. However, it is clear that asthmatics and allergic individuals (without apparent asthma) have a greater degree of bronchial hyperreactivity than nonasthmatic and nonallergic people. In sensitive individuals, the bronchial tubes are more likely to swell and constrict when exposed to triggers such as allergens, tobacco smoke, or exercise. Amongst asthmatics, some may have mild BHR and no symptoms while others may have severe BHR and chronic symptoms.
Asthma affects people differently. Each individual is unique in their degree of reactivity to environmental triggers. This naturally influences the type and dose of medication prescribed, which may vary from one individual to another.
Asthma causes a narrowing of the breathing airways, which interferes with the normal movement of air in and out of the lungs. Asthma involves only the bronchial tubes and does not affect the air sacs or the lung tissue. The narrowing that occurs in asthma is caused by three major factors: inflammation, bronchospasm, and hyperreactivity.
The first and most important factor causing narrowing of the bronchial tubes is inflammation. The bronchial tubes become red, irritated, and swollen. This inflammation increases the thickness of the wall of the bronchial tubes and thus results in a smaller passageway for air to flow through. The inflammation occurs in response to an allergen or irritant and results from the action of chemical mediators (histamine, leukotrienes, and others). The inflamed tissues produce an excess amount of “sticky” mucus into the tubes. The mucus can clump together and form “plugs” that can clog the smaller airways. Specialized allergy and inflammation cells (eosinophils and white blood cells), which accumulate at the site, cause tissue damage. These damaged cells are shed into the airways, thereby contributing to the narrowing.
The muscles around the bronchial tubes tighten during an attack of asthma. This muscle constriction of the airways is called bronchospasm. Bronchospasm causes the airway to narrow further. Chemical mediators and nerves in the bronchial tubes cause the muscles to constrict. Bronchospasm can occur in all humans and can be brought on by inhaling cold or dry air.

In patients with asthma, the chronically inflamed and constricted airways become highly sensitive, or reactive, to triggers such as allergens, irritants, and infections. Exposure to these triggers may result in progressively more inflammation and narrowing.
The combination of these three factors results in difficulty with breathing out, or exhaling. As a result, the air needs to be forcefully exhaled to overcome the narrowing, thereby causing the typical “wheezing” sound. People with asthma also frequently “cough” in an attempt to expel the thick mucus plugs. Reducing the flow of air may result in less oxygen passing into the bloodstream, and if very severe, carbon dioxide may dangerously accumulate in the blood.

COMMON PROBLEMS

BACK PAIN
Pain felt in the low or upper back. There are many causes of back pain. Pain in the low back can relate to the bony lumbar spine, discs between the vertebrae, ligaments around the spine and discs, spinal cord and nerves, muscles of the low back, internal organs of the pelvis and abdomen, and the skin covering the lumbar area. Pain in the upper back can also be a result of disorders of the aorta, chest tumors, and inflammation of the spine.

CARPEL TUNNEL SYNDROME
A type of compression neuropathy (nerve damage) caused by compression and irritation of the median nerve in the wrist. The nerve is compressed within the carpal tunnel, a bony canal in the palm side of the wrist that provides passage for the median nerve to the hand. The irritation of the median nerve is specifically due to pressure from the transverse carpal ligament.
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) can be due to trauma from repetitive work such as that of supermarket checkers, checkers in other types of stores, assembly line workers, meat packers, typists, word processors, accountants, writers, etc. Other factors predisposing to CTS include obesity, pregnancy, hypothyroidism, arthritis, and diabetes.
The symptoms of CTS include numbness and tingling of the hand, wrist pain, a “pins and needles” feeling at night, weakness in the grip and a feeling of incoordination.
Carpus is a word derived from the Greek word “karpos” which means “wrist.” The wrist is surrounded by a band of fibrous tissue that normally functions as a support for the joint. The tight space between this fibrous band and the wrist bone is called the carpal tunnel. The median nerve passes through the carpal tunnel to receive sensations from the thumb, index, and middle fingers of the hand. Any condition that causes swelling or a change in position of the tissue within the carpal tunnel can squeeze and irritate the median nerve. Irritation of the median nerve in this manner causes tingling and numbness of the thumb, index, and the middle fingers, a condition known as “carpal tunnel syndrome.
Patients with carpal tunnel syndrome initially feel numbness and tingling of the hand in the distribution of the median nerve (the thumb, index, middle, and part of the fourth fingers). These sensations are often more pronounced at night and can awaken patients from sleep. The reason symptoms are worse at night may be related to the flexed-wrist sleeping position and/or fluid accumulating around the wrist and hand while lying flat. Carpal tunnel syndrome may be a temporary condition that completely resolves or it can persist and progress.
As the disease progresses, patients can develop a burning sensation, cramping and weakness of the hand. Decreased grip strength can lead to frequent dropping of objects from the hand. Occasionally, sharp shooting pains can be felt in the forearm. Chronic carpal tunnel syndrome can also lead to wasting (atrophy) of the hand muscles, particularly those near the base of the thumb in the palm of the hand.

ARTHRITIS
Arthritis is a joint disorder featuring inflammation. A joint is an area of the body where two different bones meet. A joint functions to move the body parts connected by its bones. Arthritis literally means inflammation of one or more joints. Arthritis is frequently accompanied by joint pain. Joint pain is referred to as arthralgia.
There are many types of arthritis (over 100 and growing). The types range from those related to wear and tear of cartilage (such as osteoarthritis) to those associated with inflammation resulting from an overactive immune system (such as rheumatoid arthritis). Together, the many types of arthritis make up the most common chronic illness in the United States.
The causes of arthritis depend on the form of arthritis. Causes include injury (leading to osteoarthritis), metabolic abnormalities (such as gout and pseudogout), hereditary factors, infections, and unclear reasons (such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus).
Arthritis is classified as one of the rheumatic diseases. These are conditions that are different individual illnesses, with differing features, treatments, complications, and prognoses. They are similar in that they have a tendency to affect the joints, muscles, ligaments, cartilage, and tendons, and many have the potential to affect other internal body areas.
Symptoms of arthritis include pain and limited function of joints. Inflammation of the joints from arthritis is characterized by joint stiffness, swelling, redness, and warmth. Tenderness of the inflamed joint can be present.
Many of the forms of arthritis, because they are rheumatic diseases, can cause symptoms affecting various organs of the body that do not directly involve the joints. Therefore, symptoms in some patients with certain forms of arthritis can also include fever, gland swelling (lymph node), weight loss, fatigue, feeling unwell, and even symptoms from abnormalities of organs such as the lungs, heart, or kidneys.

MIGRAINES
A migraine headache is a form of vascular headache. Migraine headache is caused by vasodilatation (enlargement of blood vessels) that causes the release of chemicals from nerve fibers that coil around the large arteries of the brain. Enlargement of these blood vessels stretches the nerves that coil around them and causes the nerves to release chemicals. The chemicals cause inflammation, pain, and further enlargement of the artery. The increasing enlargement of the arteries magnifies the pain.
Migraine attacks commonly activate the sympathetic nervous system in the body. The sympathetic nervous system is often thought of as the part of the nervous system that controls primitive responses to stress and pain, the so-called “fight or flight” response, and this activation causes many of the symptoms associated with migraine attacks; for example, the increased sympathetic nervous activity in the intestine causes nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
The increased sympathetic activity also decreases the circulation of blood, and this leads to pallor of the skin as well as cold hands and feet.
The increased sympathetic activity also contributes to the sensitivity to light and sound sensitivity as well as blurred vision.

IMPOTENCE
Impotence is a common problem among men characterized by the consistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse or the inability to achieve ejaculation, or both. Impotence can vary. It can involve a total inability to achieve an erection or ejaculation, an inconsistent ability to do so, or a tendency to sustain only very brief erections. Men with less education are also more likely to experience impotence, perhaps because they tend to have less healthy lifestyles, eat a less healthy diet, drink more and exercise less.

HEMORRHOIDS
Hemorrhoid: A dilated (enlarged) vein in the walls of the anus and sometimes around the rectum, usually caused by untreated constipation but occasionally associated with chronic diarrhea. The symptoms start with bleeding after defecation. If untreated, hemorrhoids can worsen, protruding from the anus. In their worst stage, they must be returned to the anal cavity manually. Fissures can develop, and these may cause intense discomfort.

MOTION SICKNESS
Motion sickness is a very common disturbance of the inner ear that is caused by repeated motion such as from the swell of the sea, the movement of a car, the motion of a plane in turbulent air, etc. In the inner ear (which is also called the labyrinth), motion sickness affects the sense of balance and equilibrium and, hence, the sense of spatial orientation.
Motion is sensed by the brain through three different pathways of the nervous system that send signals coming from the inner ear (sensing motion, acceleration, and gravity), the eyes (vision), and the deeper tissues of the body surface (proprioceptors). When the body is moved intentionally, for example, when we walk, the input from all three pathways is coordinated by our brain. When there is unintentional movement of the body, as occurs during motion when driving in a car, the brain is not coordinating the input, and there is thought to be disco-ordination or conflict among the input from the three pathways. It is hypothesized that the conflict among the inputs is responsible for motion sickness.
The cause of motion sickness is complex, however, and the role of conflicting input is only a hypothesis, or a proposed explanation, for its development. Without the motion-sensing organs of the inner ear, motion sickness does not occur, suggesting that the inner ear is critical for the development of motion sickness. Visual input seems to be of lesser importance, since blind people can develop motion sickness. Motion sickness is more likely to occur with complex types of movement, especially movement that is slow or involves two different directions (for example, vertical and horizontal) at the same time.
The conflicting input within the brain appears to involve levels of the neurotransmitters (substances that mediate transmission of signals within the brain and nervous system) histamine, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine. Many of the drugs that are used to treat motion sickness act by influencing or normalizing the levels of these compounds within the brain.
The symptoms of motion sickness include nausea, vomiting, and dizziness (vertigo). Other common signs are sweating and a general feeling of discomfort and not feeling well (malaise).
Motion sickness relates to our sense of balance and equilibrium. Researchers in space and aeronautical medicine call this sense spatial orientation, because it tells the brain where the body is “in space:” what direction it is pointing, what direction it is moving, and if it is turning or standing still.
Our sense of balance is regulated by a complex interaction of the following parts of the nervous system:
The inner ears (also called the labyrinth) monitor the directions of motion, such as turning or forward-backward, side-to-side, and up-and- down motions. The eyes observe where the body is in space (for example, upside down, right side up, etc.) and also the directions of motion. Skin pressure receptors such as those located in the feet and seat sense what part of the body is down and touching the ground. Muscle and joint sensory receptors report what parts of the body are moving. The central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord) processes all the bits of information from the four other systems to make some coordinated sense out of it all.
The symptoms of motion sickness appear when the central nervous system receives conflicting messages from the other four systems — the inner ear, eyes, skin pressure receptors, and the muscle and joint sensory receptors.

ANKLE JOINT DISCOMFORT
The ankle joint is complex. It is made up of two joints: the true ankle joint and the subtalar joint:
The true ankle joint is composed of 3 bones: the tibia which forms the medial (inside) portion of the ankle; the fibula which forms the lateral (outside) portion of the ankle; and the talus underneath. The true ankle joint is responsible for the up-and-down motion of the foot.
The subtalar joint is under the true ankle joint and consists of the talus on top and calcaneus on the bottom. The subtalar joint is responsible for the side-to-side motion of the foot.
The ends of the bones in the joints of the ankle are covered by cartilage. The major ligaments of the ankle are: the anterior tibiofibular ligament (connecting the tibia to the fibula), the lateral collateral ligaments (attaching the fibula to the calcaneus to give the outside of the ankle stability), and the deltoid ligaments on the inside of the ankle (connecting the tibia to the talus and calcaneus and providing medial stability to the ankle).
In medicine, the ankle is the meeting of the leg and the foot; it is strictly the articulation of the tibia, fibula, and the talus. In popular usage, the ankle is often taken to be the ankle joint proper plus the surrounding region including the lower end of the leg and the tarsus, the start of the flat of the foot.

TENDINITIS
Inflammation of a tendon (the tissue by which muscle attaches to bone). Tendinitis most commonly occurs as a result of injury, such as to the tendons around the shoulder or elbow. It can also occur as a result of an underlying inflammatory rheumatic disease, such as reactive arthritis or gout. Tendinitis is synonymous with tendonitis.

INSOMNIA
Insomnia is defined as difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, or both, despite adequate opportunity and time to sleep, leading to impaired daytime functioning. Insomnia may be due to poor quality or quantity of sleep. Insomnia is very common and occurs in 30% to 50% of the general population. Approximately 10% of the population may suffer from chronic (long-standing) insomnia. Insomnia affects people of all ages including children, although it is more common in adults and its frequency increases with age. In general, women are affected more frequently than men. Insomnia may have many causes and, as described earlier, it can be classified based upon the underlying cause.

CONSTIPATION
Constipation means different things to different people. For many people, it simply means infrequent stools. For others, however, constipation means hard stools, difficulty passing stools (straining), or a sense of incomplete emptying after a bowel movement. The cause of each of these “types” of constipation probably is different, and the approach to each should be tailored to the specific type of constipation.
Constipation also can alternate with diarrhea. This pattern commonly occurs as part of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). At the extreme end of the constipation spectrum is fecal impaction, a condition in which stool hardens in the rectum and prevents the passage of any stool.
The number of bowel movements generally decreases with age. Ninety-five percent of adults have bowel movements between three and 21 times per week, and this would be considered normal. The most common pattern is one bowel movement a day, but this pattern is seen in less than 50% of people. Moreover, most people are irregular and do not have bowel movements every day or the same number of bowel movements each day.
Medically speaking, constipation usually is defined as fewer than three bowel movements per week. Severe constipation is defined as less than one bowel movement per week. There is no medical reason to have a bowel movement every day. Going without a bowel movement for two or three days does not cause physical discomfort, only mental distress for some people. Contrary to popular belief, there is no evidence that “toxins” accumulate when bowel movements are infrequent or that constipation leads to cancer.
It is important to distinguish acute (recent onset) constipation from chronic (long duration) constipation. Acute constipation requires urgent assessment because a serious medical illness may be the underlying cause (for example, tumors of the colon). Constipation also requires an immediate assessment if it is accompanied by worrisome symptoms such as rectal bleeding, abdominal pain and cramps, nausea and vomiting, and involuntary loss of weight. In contrast, the evaluation of chronic constipation may not be urgent, particularly if simple measures bring relief.

FATIGUE
A condition characterized by a lessened capacity for work and reduced efficiency of accomplishment, usually accompanied by a feeling of weariness and tiredness. Fatigue can be acute and come on suddenly or chronic and persist. “Fatigue” is a favorite medical word. When a patient says they have been feeling unusually tired, “real tired,” the doctor will usually write down that the patient presents with “fatigue.”

HEADACHES
A pain in the head with the pain being above the eyes or the ears, behind the head (occipital), or in the back of the upper neck. Headache, like chest pain or back ache, has many causes. All headaches are considered primary headaches or secondary headaches. Primary headaches are not associated with other diseases. Examples of primary headaches are migraine headaches, tension headaches, and cluster headaches. Secondary headaches are caused by other diseases. The associated disease may be minor or major. Tension headaches are the most common type of primary headache. As many as 90% of adults have tension headaches. Tension headaches are more common among women than men.
Migraine headaches are the second most common type of primary headache. An estimated 28 million people in the US have migraine headaches. Migraine headaches affect children as well as adults. Before puberty, boys and girls are affected equally by migraine headaches, but after puberty more women than men have them. Migraine often goes undiagnosed or is misdiagnosed as tension or sinus headaches.
Cluster headaches are a rare but important type of primary headache, affecting mainly men. The average age of cluster headache sufferers is 28-30 years, although headaches may begin in childhood.
Secondary headaches may result from innumerable conditions, ranging from life threatening ones such as brain tumors, strokes, meningitis, and subarachnoid hemorrhages to less serious but common conditions such as withdrawal from caffeine and discontinuation of analgesics (pain killing medication). Many people suffer from “mixed” headache disorders in which tension headaches or secondary headaches may trigger migraine.

ABDOMINAL PAIN
Abdominal pain is pain that is felt in the abdomen. The abdomen is an anatomical area that is bounded by the lower margin of the ribs and diaphragm above, the pelvic bone (pubic ramus) below, and the flanks on each side. Although abdominal pain can arise from the tissues of the abdominal wall that surround the abdominal cavity (such as the skin and abdominal wall muscles), the term abdominal pain generally is used to describe pain originating from organs within the abdominal cavity. Organs of the abdomen include the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Occasionally, pain may be felt in the abdomen even though it is arising from organs that are close to, but not within, the abdominal cavity. For example, conditions of the lower lungs, the kidneys, and the uterus or ovaries can cause abdominal pain. On the other hand, it also is possible for pain from organs within the abdomen to be felt outside of the abdomen. For example, the pain of pancreatic inflammation may be felt in the back. These latter types of pain are called “referred” pain because the pain does not originate in the location that it is felt. Rather, the cause of the pain is located away from where it is felt.
Abdominal pain is caused by inflammation (for example, appendicitis, diverticulitis, colitis ), by stretching or distention of an organ (for example, obstruction of the intestine, blockage of a bile duct by gallstones, swelling of the liver with hepatitis), or by loss of the supply of blood to an organ (for example, ischemic colitis).
To complicate matters, however, abdominal pain also can occur without inflammation, distention or loss of blood supply. An important example of this latter type of pain is the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is not clear what causes the abdominal pain in IBS, but it is believed to be due either to abnormal contractions of the intestinal muscles (for example, spasm) or abnormally sensitive nerves within the intestines that give rise to painful sensations inappropriately (visceral hyper-sensitivity). These latter types of pain are often referred to as functional pain because no recognizable (visible) causes for the pain have been found – at least not yet.

SCIATIA
Sciatica is pain resulting from irritation of the sciatic nerve. The pain of sciatica is typically felt from the low back to behind the thigh and radiating down below the knee. The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the body and begins from nerve roots in the lumbar spinal cord in the low back and extends through the buttock area to send nerve endings down the lower limb.
While sciatica is most commonly a result of a disc herniation directly pressing on the nerve, any cause of irritation or inflammation of this nerve can reproduce the symptoms of sciatica. These causes include irritation of the nerve from adjacent bone, tumors, muscle, internal bleeding, infections, injury, and other causes.
Sciatica causes pain, a burning sensation, numbness, or tingling radiating from the lower back and upper buttock down the back of the thigh to the back of the leg. Severe sciatica can make walking difficult if not impossible. Sometimes the symptoms of sciatica are aggravated by walking or bending at the waist and relieved by lying down.
Other treatments for sciatica include addressing the underlying cause, medications to relieve pain and inflammation and relax muscles, and physical therapy. Surgical procedures can sometimes be required for persisting sciatica that is caused by nerve compression at the lower spine.

TENNIS ELBOW
A painful injury to the tendon that is attached to the outer part of the elbow due to repetitive twisting of the wrist or forearm which causes irritation and inflammation of the extensor tendon. This tendon attaches to the lateral epicondyle of the humerus. The condition is therefore also known as lateral epicondylitis. Tennis is not the only culprit. Any action that involves repetitive twisting of the wrist or forearm such as using a screwdriver can lead to this injury.

·   Lower Limb Pain
·   Wrist & Joint Pain
·   Lower Back Pain
·   Stiff Neck/Neck Pain
·   Knee Pain

·   Stress & Tension
·   Shoulder Pain
·   Chest Pain

TMJ DISCOMFORT
The temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) is the area directly in front of the ear on either side of the head where the upper jaw (maxilla) and lower jaw (mandible) meet. Within the TMJ, there are moving parts that allow the upper jaw to close on the lower jaw. This joint is a typical sliding “ball and socket” that has a disc sandwiched between it. The TMJ is used throughout the day to move the jaw, especially in biting and chewing, talking, and yawning. It is one of the most frequently used joints of the body.
The temporo-mandibular joints are complex and are composed of muscles, tendons, and bones. Each component contributes to the smooth operation of the TMJ. When the muscles are relaxed and balanced and both jaw joints open and close comfortably, we are able to talk, chew, or yawn without pain.
We can locate the TMJ by putting a finger on the triangular structure in front of the ear. The finger is moved just slightly forward and pressed firmly while opening the jaw. The motion felt is from the TMJ. We can also feel the joint motion if we put a little finger against the inside front part of the ear canal. These maneuvers can cause considerable discomfort to a person who is experiencing TMJ difficulty, and doctors use them for making the diagnosis.
TMJ disorders are a group of complex problems of the jaw joint. TMJ disorders are also sometimes referred to as myofacial pain dysfunction and Costen’s syndrome. Because muscles and joints work together, a problem with either one can lead to stiffness, headaches, ear pain, bite problems (malocclusion), clicking sounds, or locked jaws. The following are behaviors or conditions that can lead to TMJ disorders.
Teeth grinding and teeth clenching (bruxism) increase the wear on the cartilage lining of the TMJ. Those who grind or clench their teeth may be unaware of this behavior unless they are told by someone observing this pattern while sleeping or by a dental professional noticing telltale signs of wear and tear on the teeth. Many patients awaken in the morning with jaw or ear pain. Stress frequently leads to unreleased nervous energy. It is very common for people under stress to release this nervous energy by either consciously or unconsciously grinding and clenching their teeth. Occupational tasks such as holding the telephone between the head and shoulder may contribute to TMJ disorders.
TMJ pain disorders usually occur because of unbalanced activity, spasm, or overuse of the jaw muscles. Symptoms tend to be chronic, and treatment is aimed at eliminating the precipitating factors. Many symptoms may not appear related to the TMJ itself.

Schwinn Discover Women’s Hybrid Bike

Is The Schwinn Discover Hybrid Bike Able To Find That Ideal Balance?

Schwinn Discover Women's Hybrid BikeWith obvious good looks, a strong looking aluminium frame and promises of advantageous hybridisation, the 21-speed Schwinn Discover Women’s Hybrid Bike is an attractive prospect for women that want a comfortable bike that is easy to ride but can still handle their needs.

The bike is called Discover because riders are meant to use this mode of transport for discovering new places with ease and “cruising down a leisurely bike path”. Is the bike offering the enjoyment factor hoped for or are there some clear flaws to its design?

What benefits have buyers appreciated when riding this Schwinn women’s bike?

The Schwinn Discover is said to be designed with comfort in mind and this seen in the positioning of the handlebar and the padding on the seat, the latter being a nice consideration that many riders appreciate. In addition to this, there are a number of buyers talking about the design.

The look of a women’s bike seems to be more important to designers than that of a men’s bike – one is sporty and the other more stylish – and this is seen here in shape of the frame and the simple use of black and white.

While the looks are a key selling point with this model, most reviewers are looking at it from a more practical point of view – highlighting aspects like the geometry of the frame, the speed that can be achieved, the inclusion of the mud guards and even the ability to add a basket.

Schwinn Discover Women Hybrid Bike

There is the sense with this Schwinn Discover Hybrid Bike 700C Wheels that the design and the enjoyment of the ride are the crucial aspects and there is no need to make it a high-performance bike with lots of fancy features and components.

Despite this, there are still some top name parts included, such as the Schwinn suspension fork and Shimano rear derailleur, and a definite sense of quality in certain areas.

Most of these parts seem to perform as required and highlight the bike’s place as a hybrid – not quite as lean and speedy as a road bike but not as chunky and tough as a mountain bike. The tyres for example have the rough tread to handle the surface of the track but are still slim and light.

In some cases this hybridisation works in the bike’s favour and riders get the best of both worlds but there are other times when the specification fails to hit the spot.

Why are some of the components slightly problematic and what other issues have buyers experienced with this Schwinn Discover Women’s Hybrid Bike?

The brakes are one of the first elements to be upgraded on this bike because they are not as responsive as required but it is worth noting that there have been issues with other aspects of the construction, like tube tyres popping out. As this is a bike to be assembled by hand at home, it is worth taking it to a store for a second opinion.

Additionally, there are complaints that this Schwinn is heavier than some had expected and that it does not have the suspension to handle rough trails, so even though it is a hybrid, it is a little limited in its abilities.

Finally, there are some reports that the frame is not built for shorter riders, with women at 5ft4 having to adjust the seat fully in order to reach the pedals, and this raises questions about the notion of riders 14 and up enjoying this bike to its full potential.

Summary: does this all mean that the Discover Hybrid Bike is rather limited in its appeal?

There are queries over just how much exploring you can do with this bike and the discoveries that the “Discovery” can make, with riders suggesting that it is much easier to cruise the smoother roads and tracks and find slightly more urban treasures; however, there is still a lot of potential to this bike and the right rider can really enjoy themselves with the right modifications.

This is a starting point with improvements to make and while the brakes are the obvious issue here there is room to adapt the bike further. As it stands it is a mid-range hybrid that focuses on design and comfort to ensure that women can enjoy their bike ride; with a few tweaks to a new model – notably a slightly lighter frame and accommodation for shorter riders. The Schwinn bike could become something even more desirable where the response to the road finally matches the other benefits.